Development and preparation of lean meat products.
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When the effect of food on human lipoprotein levels is tested, or when human consumption of dietary lipids must be controlled or limited, all food needs to be provided under controlled conditions to achieve consistent composition and sensory traits. It is especially important to control the composition of foods, particularly fat and fatty acid content. Because of the inherent biologic variability in the chemical composition of animal tissues (beef in particular), raw materials must be selected carefully and prepared under strict guidelines. In addition, chemical composition should be verified initially and during the production of the product to ensure the accuracy necessary for controlled dietary intake. Furthermore, the meat provided must be easy for the study subject to prepare, be of consistent serving size, and yet be highly palatable to maintain the subject's interest and participation. This article outlines the protocol for developing lean meat products for use in nutrition studies in which fat content must be controlled, especially those studies designed to examine the effect of fat content on human lipoproteins. Preliminary studies, procurement of raw materials, procedures for recipe selection, product preparation, and sampling procedures for verification of chemical composition are described. Our findings indicate that fat intake from beef, chicken, and fish can be controlled for use in nutrition studies.