Effects of L- or D-lactate-enhancement on the internal cooked colour development and biochemical characteristics of beef steaks in high-oxygen modified atmosphere
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The effects of L- or D-lactate on internal cooked colour development of steaks packaged in high-oxygen (80% O2/20% CO2) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was investigated. Ten USDA Select beef strip loins were divided individually into 4 equal-width sections, and one of four treatments (control, 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate, 2.5% L-lactate + 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate, and 2.5% D-lactate + 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate) was assigned randomly to the loin sections. Loin sections were injected to approximately 10% of their raw weight. Steaks packaged in high-oxygen MAP were stored in the dark at 1 C for 10 days. Instrumental internal colour of raw and cooked steaks (70 C), total reducing activity (TRA), NADH concentration, and percent myoglobin denaturation (PMD) were measured. Cooked steaks enhanced with 2.5% L-lactate/phosphate maintained higher a*/b* ratios, lower hue values, higher TRA and NADH concentration, and lower PMD than the control and D-lactate-injected steaks, whereas enhancement with 2.5% D-lactate did not affect cooked colour, TRA, NADH, or PMD. Thus, inclusion of an L-lactate/alkaline phosphate blend increased the reducing activity of muscle tissues by replenishing NADH and subsequently decreased the thermal denaturation of myoglobin by maintaining the reduced state of myoglobin in the high-oxygen package. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.