Apolipoprotein in Brain and Retinal Neurodegenerative Diseases. Academic Article uri icon


  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that remains incurable and has become a major medical, social, and economic challenge worldwide. AD is characterized by pathological hallmarks of senile plaques (SP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that damage the brain up to twenty years before a clinical diagnosis is made. Interestingly these pathological features have also been observed in retinal neurodegenerative diseases including age related macular degeneration (ARMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). An association of AD with these diseases has been suggested in epidemiological studies and several common pathological events and risk factors have been identified between these diseases. The E4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a well-established genetic risk factor for late onset AD. The ApoE 4 allele is also associated with retinal neurodegenerative diseases however in contrast to AD, it is considered protective in AMD, likewise ApoE E2 allele, which is a protective factor for AD, has been implicated as a risk factor for AMD and glaucoma. This review summarizes the evidence on the effects of ApoE in retinal neurodegenerative diseases and discusses the overlapping molecular pathways in AD. The involvement of ApoE in regulating amyloid beta (A) and tau pathology, inflammation, vascular integrity, glucose metabolism and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling is also discussed.

published proceedings

  • Aging Dis

altmetric score

  • 7

author list (cited authors)

  • Abyadeh, M., Gupta, V., Paulo, J. A., Sheriff, S., Shadfar, S., Fitzhenry, M., ... Mirzaei, M.

citation count

  • 4

complete list of authors

  • Abyadeh, Morteza||Gupta, Vivek||Paulo, Joao A||Sheriff, Samran||Shadfar, Sina||Fitzhenry, Matthew||Amirkhani, Ardeshir||Gupta, Veer||Salekdeh, Ghasem H||Haynes, Paul A||Graham, Stuart L||Mirzaei, Mehdi

publication date

  • April 2023