Tracking the Effects: Examining the Opportunity Stratification Hypothesis in Action Academic Article uri icon


  • The relationship between academic tracking and exclusionary discipline actions has only been studied in a limited number of empirical studies. By placing students at the lower strata, schools deprive them of the educational opportunities, widening the educational opportunity gap in a process we define as opportunity stratification. Using a quantitative analysis of data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, we found students in low-track, non-college preparatory courses had higher odds of experiencing both in-school and out-of-school suspensions when compared to students in the high-track, college preparatory courses. Our findings support the intersecting role of exclusionary discipline and tracking in opportunity stratification.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Edosomwan, K., Young, J. L., Butler, B. R., Young, J. R., & Williams, J. A.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Edosomwan, Kristian||Young, Jemimah L||Butler, Bettie Ray||Young, Jamaal R||Williams, John A

publication date

  • 2023