Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.
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Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site) and spleen (systemic inflammatory site), and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF) diet (59.2% kcal) alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO) for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i) serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin), ii) adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFN, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21) and iii) total (F4/80 CD11b) and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80 CD11c) macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05). In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (ROR) and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFN) versus HF (P<0.05). Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05). Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4 T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P=0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.
author list (cited authors)
Monk, J. M., Hou, T. Y., Turk, H. F., Weeks, B., Wu, C., McMurray, D. N., & Chapkin, R. S.
complete list of authors
Monk, Jennifer M||Hou, Tim Y||Turk, Harmony F||Weeks, Brad||Wu, Chaodong||McMurray, David N||Chapkin, Robert S
editor list (cited editors)