Clinical and pathologic features of cloned transgenic calves and fetuses (13 case studies)
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The neonatal abnormalities, treatments and outcomes in a group of 13 cloned transgenic calves and fetuses that progressed into the third trimester of pregnancy are described. From these 13 fetuses, 8 calves were born live, 4 stillborn fetuses were recovered from 3 cows that died 7 d to 2 mo before term, and 1 aborted fetus was recovered at 8 mo gestation. All fetuses and calves were derived from the same male fetal Holstein fibroblast cell line transfected with a beta-galactosidase marker gene. Six calves were delivered by Cesarian section and two by vaginal delivery between 278 and 288 d of gestation. Birth weights ranged from 44 to 58.6 kg. Five of the 8 live born calves were judged to be normal within 4 h of birth based on clinical signs and blood gas measurements. One of these 5 calves died at 6 wk of age from a suspected dilated cardiomyopathy. Three of the 8 calves were diagnosed with neonatal respiratory distress immediately following birth, one of which died (at 4 d of age) as a result of pulmonary surfactant deficiency coupled with pulmonary hypertension and elevated systemic venous pressures. Similar findings of chronic pulmonary hypertension were also observed in 2 of 5 fetuses. Placental edema was present in both calves that later died and in the 2 fetuses with cardiopulmonary abnormalities. Hydrallantois occurred with or without placental edema in 6 cows, and only 1 calf from this group survived. The 6 cows without hydrallantois or placental edema produced 5 live calves and 1 aborted fetus. The cardiopulmonary abnormalities observed in the calves and fetuses occurred in utero in conjunction with placental abnormalities, and it is likely that the cloning technique and/or in vitro embryo culture conditions contributed to these abnormalities, although the mechanism remains to be determined.
author list (cited authors)
Hill, J. R., Roussel, A. J., Cibelli, J. B., Edwards, J. F., Hooper, N. L., Miller, M. W., ... Stice, S. L.
complete list of authors
Hill, JR||Roussel, AJ||Cibelli, JB||Edwards, JF||Hooper, NL||Miller, MW||Thompson, JA||Looney, CR||Westhusin, ME||Robl, JM||Stice, SL