Design and Optimization of a Shape Memory Alloy-Based Self-Folding Sheet Academic Article uri icon


  • Origami engineeringthe practice of creating useful three-dimensional structures through folding and fold-like operations on two-dimensional building-blockshas the potential to impact several areas of design and manufacturing. In this article, we study a new concept for a self-folding system. It consists of an active, self-morphing laminate that includes two meshes of thermally-actuated shape memory alloy (SMA) wire separated by a compliant passive layer. The goal of this article is to analyze the folding behavior and examine key engineering tradeoffs associated with the proposed system. We consider the impact of several design variables including mesh wire thickness, mesh wire spacing, thickness of the insulating elastomer layer, and heating power. Response parameters of interest include effective folding angle, maximum von Mises stress in the SMA, maximum temperature in the SMA, maximum temperature in the elastomer, and radius of curvature at the fold line. We identify an optimized physical realization for maximizing folding capability under mechanical and thermal failure constraints. Furthermore, we conclude that the proposed self-folding system is capable of achieving folds of significant magnitude (as measured by the effective folding angle) as required to create useful 3D structures.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Peraza-Hernandez, E., Hartl, D., Galvan, E., & Malak, R.

citation count

  • 43

complete list of authors

  • Peraza-Hernandez, Edwin||Hartl, Darren||Galvan, Edgar||Malak, Richard

publication date

  • January 2013