Despite the growing effort to promote walking to school through environmental interventions, the corresponding impact of residential self-selection has not been examined. This study investigated how built environments, social factors, and personal factors, including self-selection of a close-to-childs-school home and a walkable neighborhood, influenced walking-to-school behaviors. Parental survey data from 20 elementary schools in Austin, Texas, were analyzed using structural equation models. Significant factors included self-selection variables, parental education, car ownership, number of adults/children in the household, school bus availability, parental perceived home-to-school distance, and the presence of convenience stores, bus stops, and office buildings en route to school. The self-selection of a close-to-childs-school home had a smaller effect on walking-to-school behaviors than parental perception of home-to-school distance. The self-selection of a walkable neighborhood was significant, while parental perception of their neighborhoods walkability was insignificant. Future efforts to promote walking to school should include both environmental interventions and educational programs.