Esomeprazole induces structural changes and apoptosis and alters function of in vitro canine neoplastic mast cells. Academic Article uri icon


  • Histamine-2 receptor antagonists such as famotidine and proton pump inhibitors such as esomeprazole are commonly used in canine MCT disease, but direct effects on dog MCs have not been evaluated. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor which has been demonstrated to cause structural and functional changes to in vitro murine mast cells (MCs). It has not yet been determined if esomeprazole, the commercially available and commonly prescribed S-isomer of omeprazole, has similar effects. Our primary study objective was to evaluate and compare the effects of acid suppressants (esomeprazole and famotidine) on MC ultrastructure, viability, and function in vitro using both healthy and neoplastic MCs. Murine bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMC), human LAD2, and canine C2 and BR cells, were used for these studies, representing a single healthy (i.e., BMMCs) MC model and multiple neoplastic MC models (i.e., LAD2, C2, BR), respectively. The rat basophilic leukemic (RBL-2H3) and canine B cell lymphoma 17-71 cell lines served as granulocytic and agranulocytic control lines for experiments, respectively. The treatment effect of acid suppressants on MC ultrastructure was assessed via both light and transmission electron microscopy. Differences in MC viability was assessed between groups via MTS-based, colorimetric assays and flow cytometry. Degranulation was assessed by quantification of -hexosaminidase (i.e., LAD2 and RBL-2H3). Esomeprazole-treated MCs of all lines exhibited dramatic time and concentration-dependent alterations in ultrastructure (i.e., increased vacuolization, compromise of cell membrane), increased apoptosis, and altered degranulation responses in comparison to famotidine and vehicle-treated cells. The canine B cell lymphoma cells consistently exhibited either no significant (i.e., cytotoxicity assays) or greatly diminished treatment responses (i.e., apoptosis) compared to MCs. Esomeprazole, but not famotidine, induces significant cytotoxicity, as well as alterations to cell structure and function to multiple lines of in vitro neoplastic MCs. Continued in vitro work investigating the specific mechanisms by which proton pump inhibitors induce these effects, as well as prospective, in vivo work comparing the treatment effects of acid suppressants on canine MCTs, are warranted.

published proceedings

  • Vet Immunol Immunopathol

altmetric score

  • 0.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Gould, E. N., Szule, J. A., Wilson-Robles, H., Steiner, J. M., Lennon, E. M., & Tolbert, M. K.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Gould, Emily N||Szule, Joseph A||Wilson-Robles, Heather||Steiner, Jörg M||Lennon, Elizabeth M||Tolbert, M Katherine

publication date

  • February 2023