Shortwave Infrared Fluorofluorophores for Multicolor In Vivo Imaging. Academic Article uri icon


  • Developing chemical tools to detect and influence biological processes is a cornerstone of chemical biology. Here we combine two tools which rely on orthogonality- perfluorocarbons and multiplexed shortwave infrared (SWIR) fluorescence imaging- to visualize nanoemulsions in real time in living mice. Drawing inspiration from fluorous and SWIR fluorophore development, we prepared two SWIR-emissive, fluorous-soluble chromenylium polymethine dyes. These are the most red-shifted fluorous fluorophores- "fluorofluorophores"-to date. After characterizing the dyes, their utility was demonstrated by tracking perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion biodistribution in vivo. Using an excitation-multiplexed approach to image two variables simultaneously, we gained insight into the importance of size and surfactant identity on biodistribution.

published proceedings

  • Angew Chem Int Ed Engl

altmetric score

  • 7.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Lim, I., Yu Lin, E., Garcia, J., Jia, S., Sommerhalter, R. E., Ghosh, S. K., Gladysz, J. A., & Sletten, E. M.

citation count

  • 4

complete list of authors

  • Lim, Irene||Yu Lin, Eric||Garcia, Joseph||Jia, Shang||Sommerhalter, Robert E||Ghosh, Subrata K||Gladysz, John A||Sletten, Ellen M

publication date

  • February 2023