Bio-Inspired Avenues for Advancing Brain Injury Prevention Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract Bio-inspired design is a highly promising avenue for uncovering novel traumatic brain injury prevention equipment designs. Nature has a history of providing inspiration for breakthrough innovations, particularly in cases when the traditional engineering mindset has failed to advance problem- solving. This work identifies patterns and trends in the ways that nature defends against external stimuli and predators, investigating them with the goal of highlighting promising inspiration for brain injury prevention. Two key strategies were found missing in engineering applications while identifying patterns and strategies used in nature: (1) connections between layers in multilayered material structures and (2) the use of multiple strategies in a single design. Nine organisms are highlighted in detail as examples of patterns in biological methods of protection, both on a macro and microscale. These findings include the coconuts shell, the pomelo fruits peel, the golden scale snails shell, the ironclad beetles exoskeleton, the woodpeckers skull, the Arapaima fishs scales, conch shells, and the dactyl club of shrimp. The results highlight knowledge gaps preventing these findings from being applied as well as recommendations for moving toward their use in engineering design.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Ezemba, J., & Layton, A.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Ezemba, Jessica||Layton, Astrid

publication date

  • December 2022