Detecting Aquatic Pollution Using Histological Investigations of the Gills, Liver, Kidney, and Muscles of Oreochromis niloticus.
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The present study aimed to determine the degree of changes in the histological architecture of the liver, gills, kidneys, and muscles of fish Oreochromis niloticus collected from different polluted river sites. Fish samples collected from the Faisalabad Fish Hatchery and upstream of Chakbandi drain acted as a control. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and epithelial hyperplasia were observed in the gills of fish inhabiting the river downstream of the Chakbandi drain entrance. Liver tissues were found to be affected by vacuolated cytoplasm, bile duct proliferation, melanomacrophages, and necrosis. In kidney tissues, shrinkage of the renal cortex, necrosis, and destructive renal tubules were observed. Histopathology of muscles indicates the presence of hypertrophy and swollen myofibers. In contrast, upstream specimens of fish exhibited mild tissue alterations. Histopathology of gills tissue showed vacuolization. Liver tissues indicated the presence of hypertrophy and more frequent Kupffer cells than usual. The vacuolation was also observed in kidney tissues. Muscle tissues expressed splitting of muscle fibres and degeneration in muscle bundles. However, sections of tissues collected from farmed fish have normal morphology and no anomalies. The histopathological assessment indicated various cellular, biochemical, and histological changes in response to the contamination in the vicinity of the fish.