In silico analyses of blood flow and oxygen transport in human micro-veins and valves.
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BACKGROUND: Almost 95% of the venous valves are micron scale found in veins smaller than 300m diameter. The fluid dynamics of blood flow and transport through these micro venous valves and their contribution to thrombosis is not yet well understood or characterized due to difficulty in making direct measurements in murine models. OBJECTIVE: The unique flow patterns that may arise in physiological and pathological non-actuating micro venous valves are predicted. METHODS: Computational fluid and transport simulations are used to model blood flow and oxygen gradients in a microfluidic vein. RESULTS: The model successfully recreates the typical non-Newtonian vortical flow within the valve cusps seen in preclinical experimental models and in clinic. The analysis further reveals variation in the vortex strengths due to temporal changes in blood flow. The cusp oxygen is typically low from the main lumen, and it is regulated by systemic venous flow. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis leads to a clinically-relevant hypothesis that micro venous valves may not create a hypoxic environment needed for endothelial inflammation, which is one of the main causes of thrombosis. However, incompetent micro venous valves are still locations for complex fluid dynamics of blood leading to low shear regions that may contribute to thrombosis through other pathways.
author list (cited authors)
Rajeeva Pandian, N. K., & Jain, A.
complete list of authors
Rajeeva Pandian, Navaneeth Krishna||Jain, Abhishek