Singleminded-2s (Sim2s) promotes delayed involution of the mouse mammary gland through suppression of Stat3 and NFκB.
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Postlactational involution of the mammary gland provides a unique model to study breast cancer susceptibility and metastasis. We have shown that the short isoform of Singleminded-2s (Sim2s), a basic helix loop helix/PAS transcription factor, plays a role in promoting lactogenic differentiation, as well as maintaining mammary epithelial differentiation and malignancy. Sim2s is dynamically expressed during mammary gland development, with expression peaking during lactation, and decreasing in early involution. To determine the role of SIM2S in involution, we used transgenic mice expressing SIM2S under the mouse mammary tumor virus-Sim2s promoter. Overexpression of Sim2s in the mouse mammary gland resulted in delayed involution, indicated by a lower proportion of cleaved caspase-3-positive cells and slower reestablishment of the mammary fat pad. Immunohistochemical and quantitative RNA analysis showed a decrease in apoptotic markers and inflammatory response genes, and an increase in antiapoptotic genes, which were accompanied by inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activity. Microarray analysis confirmed that genes in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway were repressed by SIM2S expression, along with nuclear factor-κB and other key pathways involved in mammary gland development. Multiparous mouse mammary tumor virus-Sim2s females displayed a more differentiated phenotype compared with wild-type controls, characterized by enhanced β-casein expression and alveolar structures. Together, these results suggest a role for SIM2S in the normal involuting gland and identify potential downstream pathways regulated by SIM2S.
author list (cited authors)
Scribner, K. C., Wellberg, E. A., Metz, R. P., & Porter, W. W.