Muscle plasticity and -adrenergic receptors: adaptive responses of -adrenergic receptor expression to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. Academic Article uri icon


  • We discuss the functional roles of -adrenergic receptors in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy as well as the adaptive responses of -adrenergic receptor expression to anabolic and catabolic conditions. -Adrenergic receptor stimulation using anabolic drugs increases muscle mass by promoting muscle protein synthesis and/or attenuating protein degradation. These effects are prevented by the downregulation of the receptor. Endurance training improves oxidative performance partly by increasing -adrenergic receptor density in exercise-recruited slow-twitch muscles. However, excessive stimulation of -adrenergic receptors negates their beneficial effects. Although the preventive effects of -adrenergic receptor stimulation on atrophy induced by muscle disuse and catabolic hormones or drugs are observed, these catabolic conditions decrease -adrenergic receptor expression in slow-twitch muscles. These findings present evidence against the use of -adrenergic agonists in therapy for muscle wasting and weakness. Thus, -adrenergic receptors in the skeletal muscles play an important physiological role in the regulation of protein and energy balance.

published proceedings

  • J Biomed Biotechnol

author list (cited authors)

  • Sato, S., Shirato, K., Tachiyashiki, K., & Imaizumi, K.

citation count

  • 39

complete list of authors

  • Sato, Shogo||Shirato, Ken||Tachiyashiki, Kaoru||Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

publication date

  • November 2011