Neurologic Injury Associated with Rewarming from Hypothermia: Is Mild Hypothermia on Bypass Better than Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest? Academic Article uri icon


  • Many known risk factors for adverse cardiovascular and neurological outcomes in children with congenital heart defects (CHD) are not modifiable; however, the temperature and blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), are two risk factors, which may be altered in an attempt to improve long-term neurological outcomes. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, traditionally used for aortic arch repair, has been associated with short-term and long-term neurologic sequelae. Therefore, there is a rising interest in using moderate hypothermia with selective antegrade cerebral blood flow on CPB during aortic arch repair. Rewarming from moderate-to-deep hypothermia has been shown to be associated with neuronal injury, neuroinflammation, and loss of cerebrovascular autoregulation. A significantly lesser degree of rewarming is required following mild (33-35C) hypothermia as compared with moderate (28-32C), deep (21-27C), and profound (less than 20C) hypothermia. Therefore, we believe that mild hypothermia is associated with a lower risk of rewarming-induced neurologic injury. We hypothesize that mild hypothermia with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion during CPB for neonatal aortic arch repair would be associated with improved neurologic outcome.

published proceedings

  • Front Pediatr

altmetric score

  • 3.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Bhalala, U. S., Appachi, E., & Mumtaz, M. A.

citation count

  • 11

complete list of authors

  • Bhalala, Utpal S||Appachi, Elumalai||Mumtaz, Muhammad Ali

publication date

  • January 2016