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The phenomenological SMA equations developed in Part I are used in this second paper to derive the free energy and dissipation of a SMA composite material. The derivation consists of solving a boundary value problem formulated over a mesoscale representative volume element, followed by an averaging procedure to obtain the macroscopic composite constitutive equations. Explicit equations are derived for the transformation tensors that relate the composite transformation strain rate to the phase transformation rate in the fiber and matrix. Some key findings for the two-way SME in a SMA fiber/elastomer matrix composite are that processing-induced residual stresses alter the composite austenite start and martensite start temperatures, as well as the amount of composite strain recovered during a complete cycle of temperature and fiber martensite volume fraction. Relative to the two-way SME response of stiff-matrix composites, it was found that compliant-matrix composites: (1) complete the phase transformation over a narrower temperature range; (2) exhibit greater transformation strain during the reverse transformation; and (3) undergo an incomplete strain cycle during a complete cycle of temperature and fiber martensite volume fraction. Due to the interaction of the fiber and matrix during transformation, macroscopic proportional stressing of the composite results in non-proportional fiber stressing, which in turn causes a small amount of martensitic reorientation to occur simultaneously with the transformation. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.
International Journal of Plasticity
author list (cited authors)
Boyd, J. G., & Lagoudas, D. C.