A Subspace-Inclusive Sampling Method for the Computational Design of Compositionally Graded Alloys Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract Compositionally graded alloys, a subclass of functionally graded materials (FGMs), utilize localized variations in composition with a single metal part to achieve higher performance than traditional single material parts. In previous work [Kirk, T., Galvan, E., Malak, R., and Arroyave, R., 2018, Computational Design of Gradient Paths in Additively Manufactured Functionally Graded Materials, J. Mech. Des., 140, p. 111410. 10.1115/1.4040816], the authors presented a computational design methodology that avoids common issues which limit a gradient alloys feasibility, such as deleterious phases, and optimizes for performance objectives. However, the previous methodology only samples the interior of a composition space, meaning designed gradients must include all elements in the space throughout the gradient. Because even small amounts of additional alloying elements can introduce new deleterious phases, this characteristic often neglects potentially simpler solutions to otherwise unsolvable problems and, consequently, discourages the addition of new elements to the state space. The present work improves upon the previous methodology by introducing a sampling method that includes subspaces with fewer elements in the design search. The new method samples within an artificially expanded form of the state space and projects samples outside the true region to the nearest true subspace. This method is evaluated first by observing the sample distribution in each subspace of a 3D, 4D, and 5D state space. Next, a parametric study in a synthetic 3D problem compares the performance of the new sampling scheme to the previous methodology. Lastly, the updated methodology is applied to design a gradient from stainless steel to equiatomic NiTi that has practical uses such as embedded shape memory actuation and for which the previous methodology fails to find a feasible path.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Allen, M., Kirk, T., Malak, R., & Arroyave, R.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Allen, Marshall||Kirk, Tanner||Malak, Richard||Arroyave, Raymundo

publication date

  • April 2022