Spectrally multiplexed assay using gap enhanced nanoparticle for detection of a myocardial infarction biomarker panel. Academic Article uri icon


  • Multiplexed assays are essential for the detection of biomarker panels. Differentiating signals from different biomarkers in a single test zone makes the detection more efficient. In this paper, a new method is designed for the synthesis of gap-enhanced nanoparticles (GeNPs) using Raman reporter molecules (RRM) and 6-amino-1-hexanethiol (6-AHT) as the spacer. The GeNPs show a nanometer-size gap, generate strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) attributed to the gap, and exhibit discriminative spectral peaks. The strong Au-S bonds on both core and shell sides and the covalent bond between RRM and 6-AHT led to a stable structure, which ensured the stable SERS signal generation from the GeNPs. Using the GeNPs, a spectrally multiplexed assay for the detection of a biomarker panel is developed. The biomarker panel is composed of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), copeptin, and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP), which improves myocardial infarction (MI) diagnostic performance. A paper-based platform that is more amenable to point-of-care diagnostic analysis is used. The developed single biomarker assay achieves limits of detection of 0.01ngmL-1, 0.86ngmL-1, 0.004ngmL-1 for cTnI, h-FABP, and copeptin in buffer solutions. The dynamic range of the assay in human serum samples also covers the clinically relevant range of the biomarkers. The cross interference in the multiplexed assay is low. These results show the strong potential of the developed GeNPs in multiplexed detection of biomarkers and the developed simple-to-use multiplexed assay in the diagnosis of MI at the point of care.

published proceedings

  • Anal Chim Acta

altmetric score

  • 1.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Tu, D., Holderby, A., Guo, H., Mabbott, S., Tian, L., & Cot, G. L.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • Tu, Dandan||Holderby, Allison||Guo, Heng||Mabbott, Samuel||Tian, Limei||Coté, Gerard L

publication date

  • March 2022