Hyaline cartilage differentiation of fibroblasts in regeneration and regenerative medicine. Academic Article uri icon


  • Amputation injuries in mammals are typically non-regenerative; however, joint regeneration is stimulated by BMP9 treatment, indicating the presence of latent articular chondrocyte progenitor cells. BMP9 induces a battery of chondrogenic genes in vivo, and a similar response is observed in cultures of amputation wound cells. Extended cultures of BMP9-treated cells results in differentiation of hyaline cartilage, and single cell RNAseq analysis identified wound fibroblasts as BMP9 responsive. This culture model was used to identify a BMP9-responsive adult fibroblast cell line and a culture strategy was developed to engineer hyaline cartilage for engraftment into an acutely damaged joint. Transplanted hyaline cartilage survived engraftment and maintained a hyaline cartilage phenotype, but did not form mature articular cartilage. In addition, individual hypertrophic chondrocytes were identified in some samples, indicating that the acute joint injury site can promote osteogenic progression of engrafted hyaline cartilage. The findings identify fibroblasts as a cell source for engineering articular cartilage and establish a novel experimental strategy that bridges the gap between regeneration biology and regenerative medicine.

published proceedings

  • Development

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Yu, L., Lin, Y., Yan, M., Li, T., Wu, E. Y., Zimmel, K., ... Muneoka, K.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Yu, Ling||Lin, Yu-Lieh||Yan, Mingquan||Li, Tao||Wu, Emily Y||Zimmel, Katherine||Qureshi, Osama||Falck, Alyssa||Sherman, Kirby M||Huggins, Shannon S||Hurtado, Daniel Osorio||Suva, Larry J||Gaddy, Dana||Cai, James||Brunauer, Regina||Dawson, Lindsay A||Muneoka, Ken

publication date

  • January 2022