The phagocytosis and destruction of pathogens in lysosomes constitute central elements of innate immune defense. Here, we show that
Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis, the most prevalent bacterial zoonosis globally, subverts this immune defense pathway by activating regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of mRNAs encoding BLOS1, a protein that promotes endosome-lysosome fusion. RIDD-deficient cells and mice harboring a RIDD-incompetent variant of IRE1 were resistant to infection. Non-functional Blos1struggled to assemble the BLOC-1-related complex (BORC), resulting in differential recruitment of BORC-related lysosome trafficking components, perinuclear trafficking of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs), and enhanced susceptibility to infection. The RIDD-resistant Blos1variant maintains the integrity of BORC and a higher-level association of BORC-related components that promote centrifugal lysosome trafficking, resulting in enhanced BCV peripheral trafficking and lysosomal-destruction, and resistance to infection. These findings demonstrate that host RIDD activity on BLOS1 regulates Brucellaintracellular parasitism by disrupting BORC-directed lysosomal trafficking. Notably, coronavirus MHV also subverted the RIDD-BLOS1 axis to promote intracellular replication. Our work therefore establishes BLOS1 as a novel immune defense factor whose activity is hijacked by diverse pathogens.