The dietary supplementation of zinc oxide and selenium nanoparticles enhance the immune response in freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus against aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila.
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BACKGROUND: Green nanoparticles are subjected as an immunostimulant against bacterial pathogens. METHODS: Murraya koenigii berry extract-based synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (Mb-ZnO NPs) and selenium nanoparticles (Mb-Se NPs) were relatively analyzed for immunostimulation in serum and mucus fish Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila infections. Initial minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for both Mb-ZnO NPs and Mb-Se NPs followed by specific growth rate (SGR), antioxidant level (Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), Catalase activity (CA), and Glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx)), and immune parameters Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), Respiratory burst activity (RBA), Lysozyme activity (LYZ), Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), Serum antiprotease activity and Natural complement activity (NAC). RESULTS: The potential bacterial inhibition property of Mb-ZnO NPs and Mb-Se NPs exhibited the most negligible concentration of 25 and 15 g mL-1, respectively, against A. hydrophila. In addition, Mb-ZnO NPs and Mb-Se NPs exhibited 70-80 % and 90-95 % diminished biofilm activity at 50 g mL-1 that was viewed under an inverted research microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Protein leakage and nucleic acid leakage assay quantified oozed out protein and nucleic acid from A. hydrophila that confirms Mb-Se NPs exhibited vigorous antibacterial activity than Mb-ZnO NPs at tested concentrations. Oreochromis mossambicus fed with Mb-ZnO NPs and Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet at different concentrations (0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg) improved SGR along with a rise in the immune response of those fishes against A. hydrophila infection. Serum and mucus of fish fed with Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet exhibited a significant rise in antioxidant level SOD, CA and GPx at a dosage of 2 mg/kg. Likewise, lipid peroxidation assay detected significantly diminished oxidative stress in the serum and mucus of fish fed with Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet (2 mg/kg). Enhanced immune parameters in serum and mucus of fish fed with Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet determined by MPO, RBA, LYZ, ALP, Serum antiprotease activity and NAC. CONCLUSION: Thus O. mossambicus fed with Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet was less prone to become infected by aquatic pathogen A. hydrophila established by challenge study. On the whole, Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet ensured the rise in antioxidant response that boosts the immune responses and reduces the chance of getting infected against A. hydrophila infections.