Culprits or consequences: Understanding the metabolic dysregulation of muscle in diabetes.
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The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) continues to rise despite the amount of research dedicated to finding the culprits of this debilitating disease. Skeletal muscle is arguably the most important contributor to glucose disposal making it a clear target in insulin resistance and T2D research. Within skeletal muscle there is a clear link to metabolic dysregulation during the progression of T2D but the determination of culprits vs consequences of the disease has been elusive. Emerging evidence in skeletal muscle implicates influential cross talk between a key anabolic regulatory protein, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its associated complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2), and the well-described canonical signaling for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. This new understanding of cellular signaling crosstalk has blurred the lines of what is a culprit and what is a consequence with regard to insulin resistance. Here, we briefly review the most recent understanding of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, and how anabolic responses favoring anabolism directly impact cellular glucose disposal. This review highlights key cross-over interactions between protein and glucose regulatory pathways and the implications this may have for the design of new therapeutic targets for the control of glucoregulatory function in skeletal muscle.
author list (cited authors)
O'Reilly, C. L., Uranga, S., & Fluckey, J. D.
complete list of authors
O'Reilly, Colleen L||Uranga, Selina||Fluckey, James D