Ultra-long acting prodrug of dolutegravir and delivery system - Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and formulation characterizations. Academic Article uri icon


  • The focus of present work was to characterize ultra-long acting prodrug of dolutegravir (DTG) and develop biodegradable microparticle formulation. Palmitic acid (PA) conjugated prodrug of DTG was prepared by esterification of hydroxyl group of DTG with the carboxyl group of PA. Physicochemical properties of the prodrug was characterize by MS, NMR, FTIR, SEM, DSC, NIR-CI, pH-solubility, and solid and liquid pH-stability. Comparative solid and liquid stability was performed by storing powder DTG and DTG-Palmitate at 40C/75% RH for three months and liquid solution pH 2-8 at room temperature for 24h, respectively. Pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed in white albino New Zealand rabbits by subcutaneous injection (30mg/Kg). Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticle formulation was prepared by emulsification-evaporation method and characterized for particle size distribution, shape, drug loading and in-vitro release. MS, NMR, FTIR, SEM, DSC, NIR-CI indicated formation of prodrug. Melting point of the prodrug was lower than DTG but higher than PA. Shape of DTG crystals was irregular while DTG-Palmitate crystals was fine-needle. Solid and liquid stability profiles of the prodrug were similar to DTG. Plasma half-life, area under the curve, and mean-residence time of DTG-Palmitate were 8.8, 2.3 and 14.7 folds of DTG. D90 of DTG and DTG-Palmitate microparticles was 107.12.7 and 94.33.4m, respectively. The in-vitro drug release was almost complete in three weeks from DTG microparticles while it was <85% in six months from DTG-Palmitate microparticles. In conclusion, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties and biodegradable microparticles of the prodrug suggested that the prodrug has potential of sustaining DTG release for ultra-long period compared to DTG.

published proceedings

  • Int J Pharm

author list (cited authors)

  • Khuroo, T., Dharani, S., Mohamed, E. M., Immadi, S., Wu, Z., Khan, M. A., ... Rahman, Z.

citation count

  • 7

complete list of authors

  • Khuroo, Tahir||Dharani, Sathish||Mohamed, Eman M||Immadi, Sujana||Wu, Zhixing||Khan, Mansoor A||Lu, Dai||Nehete, Pramod||Rahman, Ziyaur

publication date

  • September 2021