Serial measurement of thyroid hormones in hospitalised dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis: Incidence of non-thyroidal illness syndrome and its association with outcome and systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
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The aim of this study was to serially evaluate the serum concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis (CPVE) during a 5-day hospitalisation period and assess the association of these hormone concentrations with the outcome and the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Dogs with confirmed CPVE that were hospitalised for at least 5 days were included. The thyroid hormones concentrations were measured on days 1, 3 and 5 of hospitalisation. Twenty-eight dogs were included. All (28/28, 100%), 19/28 (69.7%) and 23/28 (82.1%) dogs had a low serum tT4, fT4 and TSH concentration, respectively, on at least 1 day during the hospitalisation period. Overall, 11/28 (39.3%) dogs were diagnosed with SIRS on at least 1 day. In survivors, serum tT4 concentration was significantly higher on day 5 (median, range: 11.8nmol/L, <6.4-32.2nmol/L) compared to those on days 1 (<6.4nmol/L, <6.4-20.1nmol/L; P=0.010) or 3 (7.6 nmol/L, <6.4-25.2 nmol/L; P=0.019). Survivors had a significantly higher tT4 concentration (median, range: 11.8 nmol/L, <6.4-32.2nmol/L) on day 5 compared to non-survivors (<6.4 nmol/L, <6.4-7.2 nmol/L; P=0.002). Regardless of the day of hospitalisation, dogs with SIRS had significantly lower tT4 (<6.4nmol/L, <6.4-16.3nmol/L) compared to dogs without SIRS (8.6nmol/L, <6.4-32.2nmol/L; P=0.006). A significant difference was also found in fT4 between dogs with SIRS (<3.9 pmol/L, <3.9-16.2pmol/L) and dogs without SIRS (15.1pmol/L, <3.9-59.2;pmol/L; P<0.001). Non-thyroidal illness syndrome was frequently observed in dogs with CPVE, and a negative association between tT4 and fT4 concentrations and SIRS was noted. Serial measurements of tT4 concentrations appeared to have prognostic value.