Drug-induced liver injury and prospect of cytokine based therapy; A focus on IL-2 based therapies.
Additional Document Info
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most frequent sources of liver failure and the leading cause of liver transplant. Common non-prescription medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, and other prescription drugs when taken at more than the recommended doses may lead to DILI. The severity of DILI is affected by factors such as age, ethnicity, race, gender, nutritional status, on-going liver diseases, renal function, pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and drug-drug interactions. Characteristics of DILI-associated inflammation include apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes and hepatic infiltration of pro-inflammatory immune cells. If untreated or if the inflammation continues, DILI and associated hepatic inflammation may lead to development of hepatocarcinoma. The therapeutic approach for DILI-associated hepatic inflammation depends on whether the inflammation is acute or chronic. Discontinuing the causative medication, vaccination, and special dietary supplementation are some of the conventional approaches to treat DILI. In this review, we discuss a concise overview of DILI-associated liver complications, and current therapeutic options with special emphasis on biologics including the scope of cytokine therapy in hepatic repair and resolution of inflammation caused by over- the-counter (OTC) or prescription drugs.