On the Theory and Design of Cold Resistors Academic Article uri icon


  • The concept of using special electrical circuit design to realize cold resistors, i.e., an active resistor circuitry with lower effective noise temperature, was first introduced about 80 years ago. Later on, various kinds of artificial resistors were applied in different research areas, such as gravitational wave detection, photo-amplifiers and quartz oscillators. Their proofs of concepts were experimentally proved. Unfortunately, the complete theory was not found even though several attempts had been published, sometimes with errors. In this paper, we describe a correct and complete circuit theoretical model of a cold resistor system. The results are confirmed by computer simulations. A design tool for this circuit is also shown.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Song, J., & Kish, L. B.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Song, Jiaao||Kish, Laszlo B

publication date

  • February 2021