A review of biosensor technologies for blood biomarkers toward monitoring cardiovascular diseases at the point-of-care.
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) cause significant mortality globally. Notably, CVDs disproportionately negatively impact underserved populations, such as those that are economically disadvantaged and often located in remote regions. Devices to measure cardiac biomarkers have traditionally been focused on large instruments in a central laboratory but the development of affordable, portable devices that measure multiple cardiac biomarkers at the point-of-care (POC) are needed to improve clinical outcomes for patients, especially in underserved populations. Considering the enormity of the global CVD problem, complexity of CVDs, and the large candidate pool of biomarkers, it is of great interest to evaluate and compare biomarker performance and identify potential multiplexed panels that can be used in combination with affordable and robust biosensors at the POC toward improved patient care. This review focuses on describing the known and emerging CVD biosensing technologies for analysis of cardiac biomarkers from blood. Initially, the global burden of CVDs and the standard of care for the primary CVD categories, namely heart failure (HF) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including myocardial infarction (MI) are discussed. The latest United States, Canadian and European society guidelines recommended standalone, emerging, and add-on cardiac biomarkers, as well as their combinations are then described for the prognosis, diagnosis, and risk stratification of CVDs. Finally, both commercial in vitro biosensing devices and recent state-of-art techniques for detection of cardiac biomarkers are reviewed that leverage single and multiplexed panels of cardiac biomarkers with a view toward affordable, compact devices with excellent performance for POC diagnosis and monitoring.
author list (cited authors)
Ouyang, M., Tu, D., Tong, L., Sarwar, M., Bhimaraj, A., Li, C., Cot, G. L., & Di Carlo, D.
complete list of authors
Ouyang, Mengxing||Tu, Dandan||Tong, Lin||Sarwar, Mehenur||Bhimaraj, Arvind||Li, Chenzhong||Coté, Gerard L||Di Carlo, Dino