GHS-R suppression in adipose tissues protects against obesity and insulin resistance by regulating adipose angiogenesis and fibrosis
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BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that increases food intake, adiposity, and insulin resistance through its receptor Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R). We previously showed that ghrelin/GHS-R signaling has important roles in regulation of energy homeostasis, and global deletion of GHS-R reduces obesity and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing thermogenesis. However, it is unknown whether GHS-R regulates thermogenic activation in adipose tissues directly. METHODS: We generated a novel adipose tissue-specific GHS-R deletion mouse model and characterized the mice under regular diet (RD) and high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Body composition was measured by Echo MRI. Metabolic profiling was determined by indirect calorimetry. Response to environmental stress was assessed using a TH-8 temperature monitoring system. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Tissue histology was analyzed by hematoxylin/eosin and immunofluorescent staining. Expression of genes involved in thermogenesis, angiogenesis and fibrosis in adipose tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Under RD feeding, adipose tissue-specific GHS-R deletion had little or no impact on metabolic parameters. However, under HFD feeding, adipose tissue-specific GHS-R deletion attenuated diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, showing elevated physical activity and heat production. In addition, adipose tissue-specific GHS-R deletion increased expression of master adipose transcription regulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ1 and adipokines of adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21; and differentially modulated angiogenesis and fibrosis evident in both gene expression and histological analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in adipocytes, and suppression of GHS-R in adipose tissues protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by modulating adipose angiogenesis and fibrosis. These findings suggest adipose GHS-R may constitute a novel therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
author list (cited authors)
Lee, J. H., Fang, C., Li, X., Wu, C. S., Noh, J. Y., Ye, X., ... Sun, Y.