The effect of cooling and rehydration methods in high moisture meat analogs with pulse proteins‐peas, lentils, and faba beans
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Pulse proteins (PLP) can be ideal alternative-sources that produce a meat-like textured product, known as a high moisture meat analog (HMMA). In this research, each commercial PLP: pea (16%), lentil (16%), and faba-bean (20%) was mixed with pea isolate (63%, 63%, and 59%, respectively) and constant ingredients which are canola oil (6%) and wheat gluten (15%) and texturized to produce HMMA using a twin-screw extruder (TX-52) with a cooling die. Soy concentrate and soy isolate were mixed with the constant ingredients and texturized into an HMMA and used as a control. Before freezing for storage, each sample was cooled by air, water, or a brine solution (2% or 4%) for 10 min. Frozen samples were thawed at room temperature (25 °C) for 3 hr and rehydrated by soaking at 25 °C for 2 hr, warm-soaking at 50 °C for 12 hr, or boiling for 2 min. Color, moisture content (MC), specific density (SD), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), and texture were measured. Compared to the control, samples with PLP had less lightness and texture and greater redness, yellowness, MC and WSI. The 2% brine solution used for cooling reduced WSI without textural change compared to other cooling methods. Boiling for rehydration increased lightness while warm-soaking decreased lightness and increased yellowness. In addition, boiling resulted in the least MC, SD, WSI, and WAI following soaking and warm-soaking. Therefore, these PLP can be used as alternative meat sources to soy proteins and a 2% brine solution for cooling and rehydration by boiling are recommended to reduce the WSI. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Pulses are an excellent food ingredient because they are rich in protein and have an exceptional nutritional profile. In this study, high moisture meat analogs containing pea proteins, lentil proteins, faba bean proteins, and pea isolate instead of soy concentrate and soy isolate were produced. According to the results, pulse proteins can be an alternative source to soy proteins. Since they formed relatively well-defined orientation. Further research can be conducted using modified processing conditions for texturization to improve its quality. In addition, this research can help researchers and product developers understand proper handling methods for HMMA products after production such as cooling before freezing for storage and thawing and rehydrating after freezing.
author list (cited authors)
Kim, T., Riaz, M. N., Awika, J., & Teferra, T. F.