Digital and analog vertical dimension measurements: A clinical observational study. Academic Article uri icon


  • PURPOSE: To compare the rest vertical dimension (RVD) and occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measurements obtained using a facial scanner with conventional methods and to evaluate the influence of the file format on the accuracy of the digital calculations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants (N = 30) received marks on the glabella (Gb), tip of the nose (TN), and pogonion (Pg). Interlandmark distances Gb-TN and TN-Pg in the OVD and RVD positions were recorded by two operators conventionally (manual group) and digitally (digital group). For the manual group, measurements were obtained using a caliper. For the digital group, 10 scans in each position were obtained using a facial scanner (Face Camera Pro, Bellus3D) and exported in tessellation with polygonal faces (OBJ) and standard tessellation language (STL) file formats. Digital measurements were performed using both facial scan file formats and a software (Matera 2.4, exocad). The interocclusal rest distance (IRD) and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine normal distribution. An independent samples t test, one-way analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey test were used for analyses (± = .05). RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the manual and digital measurements using the OBJ files or digital measurements using the STL files (P > .05). The IRD ranged from 0.72 ± 0.48 mm to 5.00 ± 1.34 mm. The inter- and intra-operator reliability were significant (P < .001), with a Cronbach's alpha value ranging from .994 to .997. CONCLUSION: No difference was found between manual and digital measurements. A high measurement consistency was encountered for each operator and between the operators. The facial scan file format did not influence the digital measurements.

published proceedings

  • Int J Prosthodont

author list (cited authors)

  • Mosier, M., Barmak, B. A., Gmez-Polo, M., Zandinejad, A., & Revilla-Len, M.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Mosier, Meredith||Barmak, Basir A||Gómez-Polo, Miguel||Zandinejad, Amirali||Revilla-León, Marta

publication date

  • July 2021