Microengineered Human Vein-Chip Recreates Venous Valve Architecture and Its Contribution to Thrombosis.
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Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and its consequences are lethal, but current models cannot completely dissect its determinants-endothelium, flow, and blood constituents-together called Virchow's triad. Most models for studying DVT forego assessment of venous valves that serve as the primary sites of DVT formation. Therefore, the knowledge of DVT formed at the venous cusps has remained obscure due to lack of experimental models. Here, organ-on-chip methodology is leveraged to create a Vein-Chip platform integrating fully vascularized venous valves and its hemodynamic, as seen in vivo. These Vein-Chips reveal that vascular endothelium of valve cusps adapts to the locally disturbed microenvironment by expressing a different phenotype from the regions of uniform flow. This spatial adaptation of endothelial function recreated on the in vitro Vein-Chip platform is shown to protect the vein from thrombosis from disturbed flow in valves, but interestingly, cytokine stimulation reverses the effect and switches the valve endothelium to becoming prothrombotic. The platform eventually modulates the three factors of Virchow's triad and provides a systematic approach to investigate the determinants of fibrin and platelet dynamics of DVT. Therefore, this Vein-Chip offers a new preclinical approach to study venous pathophysiology and show effects of antithrombotic drug treatment.
author list (cited authors)
Rajeeva Pandian, N. K., Walther, B. K., Suresh, R., Cooke, J. P., & Jain, A.
complete list of authors
Rajeeva Pandian, Navaneeth Krishna||Walther, Brandon K||Suresh, Rishi||Cooke, John P||Jain, Abhishek