Fractured-karst spring-flow protections: a case study in Jinan, China
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Jinan Springs are an important historical heritage in China and have been well known for hundreds of years. Over-abstraction of groundwater in the Jinan area has seriously endangered the hydrological system of the springs, which have stopped flowing for significant periods of time in recent years. A three-dimensional finite-element model programmed primarily at the Hefei University of Technology has been developed to simulate groundwater level change in the large fractured-karst aquifer system in the Jinan Springs field. Various spring protection plans have been explored and their effects on the water table analyzed and compared. It was found that the present rate of groundwater withdrawal from the fractured-karst system in this area was inappropriate for spring protection. The simulated results suggest that decreasing the rate of groundwater pumping from 6.9 × 105 to 2.7 × 105 m3/day is needed to protect spring flows. Additional water resource requirements in that area may be met by use of surface water and recycled waste water. © Springer-Verlag 2006.
author list (cited authors)
Qian, J., Zhan, H., Wu, Y., Li, F., & Wang, J.