Chronic inflammation resulting from infections, altered metabolism, inflammatory diseases or other environmental factors can be a major contributor to the development of several types of cancer. In fact around 20% of all cancers are linked to some form of inflammation. Evidence gathered from genetic, epidemiological and molecular pathological studies suggest that inflammation plays a crucial role at various stages of prostatic carcinogenesis and tumor progression. These include initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Detailed basic and clinical research in these areas, focused towards understanding the etiology of prostatic inflammation, as well as the exact roles that various signaling pathways play in promoting tumor growth, is critical for understanding this complex process. The information gained would be useful in developing novel therapeutic strategies such as molecular targeting of inflammatory mediators and immunotherapy-based approaches.