Safety analysts are generally interested in understanding the differences in the safety performance when a two-way street is converted to a one-way operation or vice-versa. Literature exists to understand and predict the safety of two-way streets. However, safety prediction procedures are currently not available for assessing the safety performance of one-way arterials. This research was undertaken to develop safety prediction models for one-way arterials. To accomplish this objective, data collected in California, Illinois, Michigan, Oregon, and Texas were assembled that included a wide range of geometric design features, traffic control features, traffic characteristics, and crash records. The data were used to calibrate predictive models, each of which included a safety performance function (SPF) and several crash modification factors (CMFs). Separate SPFs were developed for fatal and injury crashes (i.e., fatal, incapacitating injury, non-incapacitating injury, and possible injury crash) and property-damage-only crashes. The SPFs were estimated using the negative binomial modeling structure. Severity distribution functions (SDFs) were also calibrated using the fatal and injury data. These functions can be used with the predictive models to estimate the expected crash frequency for each of four injury severity levels.