Despite the well-documented involvement of thromboxane A2 receptor (TPR) signaling in the pathogenesis of thrombotic diseases, there are currently no rationally-designed antagonists available for clinical use. To a large extent this derives from a lack of knowledge regarding the topography of the TPR ligand binding pocket. On this basis, the purpose of the current study was to identify the specific amino acid residues in the TPR protein which regulate ligand coordination and binding. The sites selected for mutation reside within or in close proximity to a region we previously defined as a TPR ligand binding site, i.e., the C-terminus of the second extracellular loop and the leading edge of the fifth transmembrane domain. Mutation of these residues caused varying effects on the TPR-ligand coordination process. Specifically, the D193A mutant lacked both SQ29,548 (antagonist) binding and U46619 (agonist)-induced calcium mobilization. Three other mutants, F184Y, T186A and S191T, discriminated between SQ29,548 binding and the U46619-mediated functional response. Furthermore, these mutants also revealed a divergence in the binding of two structurally different antagonists, SQ29,548 and BM13.505. Conversely, two separate mutants which exhibited SQ29,548 binding activity yielded either a normal (F196Y) or reduced (S201T) U46619 response. Finally, mutation of other residues directly adjacent to those described above, e.g., E190A and F200A, produced no detectable effects on either SQ29,548 binding or the U46619-induced functional response. In summary, these results identify key amino acids involved in TPR ligand coordination and demonstrate that TPR-specific ligands do not necessarily interact with the same residues in the ligand-binding pocket.