Methyl nomilinate from citrus can modulate cell cycle regulators to induce cytotoxicity in human colon cancer (SW480) cells in vitro. Academic Article uri icon


  • Limonoids are triterpenoids found in citrus and possess cancer preventive properties in in vitro and in vivo assays. Although several mechanisms for the chemopreventive properties of limonoids have been postulated, the specific mechanisms involved in the anti-cancer effects have not been explored. In the present study, limonoids, including methyl nomilinate, isoobacunoic acid, isolimonexic acid (ILNA), and limonexic acid (LNA), were purified, identified by LC-MS and NMR spectral data and evaluated for their biological effects on SW480 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Methyl nomilinate was the most potent inhibitor of cell metabolic activity in MTT and EdU incorporation assays. These limonoids did not affect apoptotic markers such as caspase-3 and PARP, but methyl nomilinate treatment resulted in significant induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, methyl nomilinate suppressed CDK4/6 and cyclin D3 and the expression of CDK inhibitors. Taken together, the results suggest inhibition of cell proliferation by methyl nomilinate occurs due to G1 cell cycle arrest, indicating that methyl nomilinate has potential as a chemopreventive agent.

published proceedings

  • Toxicol In Vitro

author list (cited authors)

  • Kim, J., Jayaprakasha, G. K., Vikram, A., & Patil, B. S.

citation count

  • 22

complete list of authors

  • Kim, Jinhee||Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K||Vikram, Amit||Patil, Bhimanagouda S

publication date

  • October 2012