Bioprinting 101: Design, Fabrication, and Evaluation of Cell-Laden 3D Bioprinted Scaffolds.
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3D bioprinting is an additive manufacturing technique that recapitulates the native architecture of tissues. This is accomplished through the precise deposition of cell-containing bioinks. The spatiotemporal control over bioink deposition permits for improved communication between cells and the extracellular matrix, facilitates fabrication of anatomically and physiologically relevant structures. The physiochemical properties of bioinks, before and after crosslinking, are crucial for bioprinting complex tissue structures. Specifically, the rheological properties of bioinks determines printability, structural fidelity, and cell viability during the printing process, whereas postcrosslinking of bioinks are critical for their mechanical integrity, physiological stability, cell survival, and cell functions. In this review, we critically evaluate bioink design criteria, specifically for extrusion-based 3D bioprinting techniques, to fabricate complex constructs. The effects of various processing parameters on the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of bioinks are discussed. Furthermore, emerging trends and future directions in the area of bioinks and bioprinting are also highlighted. Graphical abstract [Figure: see text] Impact statement Extrusion-based 3D bioprinting is an emerging additive manufacturing approach for fabricating cell-laden tissue engineered constructs. This review critically evaluates bioink design criteria to fabricate complex tissue constructs. Specifically, pre- and post-printing evaluation approaches are described, as well as new research directions in the field of bioink development and functional bioprinting are highlighted.
author list (cited authors)
Deo, K. A., Singh, K. A., Peak, C. W., Alge, D. L., & Gaharwar, A. K.
complete list of authors
Deo, Kaivalya A||Singh, Kanwar Abhay||Peak, Charles W||Alge, Daniel L||Gaharwar, Akhilesh K