The potential of additive manufacturing technologies and their processing parameters for the fabrication of all-ceramic crowns: A review.
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OBJECTIVE: This article aims to provide a review of the additive manufacturing technologies and the processing parameters that have been investigated for the fabrication of all ceramic crowns. OVERVIEW: Additive manufacturing has crept its way into the field of dentistry for the fabrication of resin and metal prosthesis. To evaluate the current status of additive manufacturing for the fabrication of all ceramic crowns, literature review was targeted to include publications pertaining to the fabrication of dental ceramics and all ceramic crowns. With respect to the additive manufacturing of dental ceramics, five technologies have been investigated to date: stereolithography, material extrusion, powder based fusion, direct inkjet printing, and binder jetting. The processing parameters and experimental outcomes were collated and described for each of the aforementioned technologies. CONCLUSION: Additive manufacturing has demonstrated promising experimental outcomes and corroborated to the fabrication all ceramic crowns. However, the technology is yet to witness a commercial breakthrough within this domain. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Additive manufacturing mitigates raw material wastage and tooling stresses that are associated with milling of ceramics. Continued research and development can lead to its approbation as an alternate technology for manufacturing all ceramic restorations.