Sustainability and resiliency issues need to be considered for the selection of the stabilizer(s) for a given type of soil because of inherent environmental and societal impacts. Soils in southern Italy can exhibit high compressibility and low strength properties. As a result, stabilization techniques are often needed to improve subsoils and thereby optimize pavement performance. To investigate the sustainability issues, a model was formulated in which user and environmental costs were considered to assess the overall sustainability and resiliency of a transportation infrastructure for low-volume roads. An experimental plan was designed and implemented in real field conditions. Several soils and stabilizer-related variables were considered in the experimental design. Laboratory strength tests, including the California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and indirect tensile strength (ITS), were conducted on control and treated soils. The results led to conclusions pertaining to lime stabilization potential for improving the performance of weak soils, correlations between ITS and UCS properties, and the potential of combined treatments as a strategy for achieving the target performance in a short period of time. Life-cycle cost analyses were used to evaluate benefits and address the sustainability and resiliency of lime and cement treatments for the present soils for low-volume road conditions. The outcomes of this research should benefit practitioners and researchers working in this field.