Chemokine Receptor 7 Is Essential for Coxiella burnetii Whole-Cell Vaccine-Induced Cellular Immunity but Dispensable for Vaccine-Mediated Protective Immunity
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BACKGROUND: Protective immunity against Coxiella burnetii infection is conferred by vaccination with virulent (PI-WCV), but not avirulent (PII-WCV) whole-cell inactivated bacterium. The only well-characterized antigenic difference between virulent and avirulent C. burnetii is they have smooth and rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively. METHODS: Mice were vaccinated with PI-WCV and PII-WCV. Humoral and cellular responses were evaluated using protein chip microarrays and ELISpots, respectively. Dendritic cell (DC) maturation after stimulation with PI-WVC and PII-WVC was evaluated using flow cytometry. Vaccine-challenge studies were performed to validate the importance of the receptor CCR7. RESULTS: Other than specific antibody response to PI-LPS, similar antibody profiles were observed but IgG titers were significantly higher after vaccination with PI-WCV. Furthermore, higher frequency of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells was detected in mice immunized with PI-WCV. PI-WCV-stimulated DCs displayed significantly higher levels of CCR7 and migratory ability to secondary lymphoid organs. Challenge-protection studies in wild-type and CCR7-deficient mice confirmed that CCR7 is critical for PI-WCV-induced cellular immunity. CONCLUSIONS: PI-WVC stimulates protective immunity to C. burnetii in mice through stimulation of migratory behavior in DCs for protective cellular immunity. Additionally, the humoral immune response to LPS is an important component of protective immunity.
author list (cited authors)
Chen, C., van Schaik, E. J., Gregory, A. E., Vigil, A., Felgner, P. L., Hendrix, L. R., Faris, R., & Samuel, J. E.