Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements of NAD(P)H in Live Cells and Tissue
Additional Document Info
Autofluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging of NAD(P)H yields quantitative, non-invasive measurements of cellular metabolism. NAD(P)H is a coenzyme involved in cellular metabolism processes including glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. The NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime includes a short and long lifetime component due to the two possible physiological conditions of NAD(P)H, free or protein-bound (to an enzyme and/or substrate). Fluorescence lifetimes of NAD(P)H have been imaged in cells, ex vivo tissues, and in vivo tissues to investigate cellular metabolism at basal conditions and with perturbations. In particular, NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetimes are altered in pre-malignant and malignant cells and tissues compared with non-malignant cells and tissues across several cancers including head and neck cancers, breast cancer, and skin cancer. Additionally, NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetimes decrease in cancer cells and tumors following drug treatment and therefore, these metabolic endpoints show potential for drug monitoring and screening.