Evaluation of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine (paromomycin)-allopurinol combination in dogs with leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum: A randomized, blinded, controlled study
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Canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease. Although aminosidine can be an effective treatment, current therapeutic recommendations do not advocate its use, mainly due to concerns regarding the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of this drug. The aim of this randomized, blinded, controlled study was to evaluate the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine-allopurinol combination and compare it with that of meglumine antimonate-allopurinol combination in non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis. Forty dogs with leishmaniosis were randomly assigned to be treated with either aminosidine at 15 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group A) or with meglumine antimonate at 100 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group B). In addition to either drug, dogs in both groups were administered allopurinol at 10 mg/kg per os twice daily for 2 months. Kidney function was evaluated through measurement of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, and cystatin-c concentrations and complete urinalysis, including protein-to-creatinine ratio, at baseline and after 14, 28, and 60 days from the beginning of the treatment. At the same time points, vestibular and auditory functions were evaluated through neurological examination and brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings of wave I, wave V, inter-wave I-V latencies, and minimum hearing thresholds. None of the dogs developed clinicopathological evidence of kidney disease during the study. Serum creatinine concentration increased >0.3 mg/dl over baseline in 2 dogs in group A and in 5 dogs in group B. Parameters of kidney function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and the only difference between the two groups was the lower concentration of serum creatinine in group A. None of the dogs developed peripheral vestibular syndrome or hearing impairment. At the end of the study, parameters of auditory function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and there were no differences between the two groups. The results of this study show that the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine, when administered to non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis at 15 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily for 28 days along with allopurinol, is minimal and does not differ from that of meglumine antimonate.
author list (cited authors)
Kasabalis, D., Chatzis, M. K., Apostolidis, K., Xenoulis, P. G., Buono, A., Petanides, T., ... Saridomichelakis, M. N.