C/EBPδ targets cyclin D1 for proteasome-mediated degradation via induction of CDC27/APC3 expression
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The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta, CEBPD, NFIL-6beta) has tumor suppressor function; however, the molecular mechanism(s) by which C/EBPdelta exerts its effect are largely unknown. Here, we report that C/EBPdelta induces expression of the Cdc27 (APC3) subunit of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which results in the polyubiquitination and degradation of the prooncogenic cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, and also down-regulates cyclin B1, Skp2, and Plk-1. In C/EBPdelta knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) Cdc27 levels were reduced, whereas cyclin D1 levels were increased even in the presence of activated GSK-3beta. Silencing of C/EBPdelta, Cdc27, or the APC/C coactivator Cdh1 (FZR1) in MCF-10A breast epithelial cells increased cyclin D1 protein expression. Like C/EBPdelta, and in contrast to cyclin D1, Cdc27 was down-regulated in several breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that Cdc27 itself may be a tumor suppressor. Cyclin D1 is a known substrate of polyubiquitination complex SKP1/CUL1/F-box (SCF), and our studies show that Cdc27 directs cyclin D1 to alternative degradation by APC/C. These findings shed light on the role and regulation of APC/C, which is critical for most cellular processes.
author list (cited authors)
Pawar, S. A., Sarkar, T. R., Balamurugan, K., Sharan, S., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., ... Sterneck, E.