Early Warning Signs: Identifying Opportunities to Disrupt Racial Inequities in School Discipline Through Data- Based Decision Making Academic Article uri icon


  • The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how school psychologists can proactively address disparities in school suspension through the examination of office discipline referrals (ODR). Results of two studies examining high school ODRs suggest that there is value in school psychologists disaggregating and analyzing ODRs at the school level and at the teacher and student level. Findings indicate that sampled teachers issued ODRs predominantly for missed classes and defiance. High referring teachers issued more ODRs earlier on in the school year than their colleagues and at greater rates for Black and Hispanic students than White students. Implications for school psychologists' promotion and engagement in culturally responsive service delivery are discussed.

published proceedings

  • School Psychology Forum

author list (cited authors)

  • Blake, J. J., Gregory, A., James, M., & Hasan, G. W.

complete list of authors

  • Blake, JJ||Gregory, A||James, Marlon||Hasan, GW

publication date

  • 2016