Development, analytical validation, and initial clinical evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of soluble CD25 concentrations in canine serum
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During immune activation, CD25 is expressed by T cells, and its soluble form (sCD25) is released into the extracellular matrix and the bloodstream. In humans, serum sCD25 concentrations are used as a surrogate marker for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and transplant rejection. However, a canine-specific assay for the measurement of sCD25 in dog serum has not previously been described. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and analytically validate a radioimmunoassay to measure sCD25 in canine serum, to establish a reference interval for canine sCD25, and to test the clinical utility of this assay with serum samples for dogs with various diseases. A competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed and analytically validated. Analytical validation consisted of lower limit of detection (LLOD), dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, and intra- and inter-assay variability using pooled surplus canine serum samples. A reference interval was established in healthy dogs and serum samples from dogs with various types of neoplasia, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease and serum samples with an increased C-reactive protein concentration (CRP) were analyzed to test the clinical utility of the assay. LLOD was calculated to be 0.5 ng/mL. The mean (±SD) observed-to-expected ratio (O/E) for serial dilutions was 101.7 ± 14.0%, and the mean (± SD) O/E for spiking recovery was 93.2 ± 4.2%. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for intra-assay variability were ≤12.5% (mean ± SD: 7.5 ± 4.2%), and inter-assay CVs were ≤15.7% (mean ± SD: 11 ± 4.4%). A reference interval (RI) for canine sCD25 of 1.2-4.2 ng/mL was established from a population of 112 clinically healthy dogs. Dogs with neoplasia and dogs with suspected small intestinal disease had decreased concentrations of serum sCD25 when compared to healthy dogs (p < 0.0001, respectively). However, the majority of clinical samples used in this study were within the reference interval. Median concentrations of serum sCD25 were 1.9 ng/mL for healthy dogs. Dogs with cancer, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease, as well as sera with an increased serum CRP concentration, had median serum sCD25 concentrations of 1.6 ng/mL, 2.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ng/mL, 1.7 ng/mL, 1.5 ng/mL, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Thus, the RIA described here is linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible for measuring sCD25 in canine serum. However, this assay shows little clinical utility of sCD25 as a biomarker for dogs with inflammatory, autoimmune, and/or neoplastic conditions.
author list (cited authors)
Buono, A., Lidbury, J. A., Wood, C., Wilson-Robles, H., Dangott, L. J., Allenspach, K., Suchodolski, J. S., & Steiner, J. M.