Fast, Ring-Based Design of 3-D Stacked DRAM
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© 1993-2012 IEEE. As computer memory increases in size and processors continue to get faster, the memory subsystem becomes a bottleneck to system performance. To mitigate the relatively slow dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chip speeds, a new generation of 3-D stacked DRAM is being developed, with lower power consumption and higher bandwidth. This paper proposes the use of 3-D ring-based data fabrics for fast data transfer between the chips in the 3-D stacked DRAM. The ring-based data fabric uses a fast standing wave oscillator to clock its transactions. With a fast clocking scheme and multiple channels sharing the same bus, more channels are utilized while significantly reducing the number of through-silicon vias. Our memory architecture using a ring-based scheme (MARS) can effectively trade off power, throughput, and latency to improve the system performance for different application spaces. Experimental results show that our ring-based data fabric can reduce read latencies and power consumption. MARS variants can deliver better latency (up to sim 4 imes ), power (up to sim 8 imes ), and performance per watt (up to sim 8 imes ) over high bandwidth memory. We also compare our approach with Wide I/O, which is designed for power-constrained systems. MARS variants provide better latency (up to sim 8 imes ) with similar performance per watt.
author list (cited authors)
Douglass, A. J., & Khatri, S. P.