Skin effect on single-well push-pull tests with the presence of regional groundwater flow
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© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Single-well push-pull (SWPP) test is one of the most important ways to estimate flow and transport parameters, e.g. porosity, dispersivity, regional groundwater flow velocity. Usually the wellbore is surrounded by a finite-thickness skin, such as a gravel pack. The positive skin has a smaller hydraulic conductivity than the aquifer formation zone, and the negative skin has a greater one. In this study, a numerical model of a SWPP test considering skin effects was established using the finite-element COMSOL Multiphysics program to estimate aquifer parameters. Several important results were obtained. Firstly, regional groundwater velocity affects the types of breakthrough curves (BTCs) through changing the flow pattern. Secondly, a positive (or negative) skin leads to a slower (or faster) tracer transport process, and a smaller ratio between the hydraulic conductivity of the skin and that of the aquifer formation zone results in greater solute plume retardation in the skin zone. Thirdly, a larger thickness of the positive skin leads to a higher tracer concentration around the well, and the opposite is true if the skin is negative. Besides, the model of Leap and Kaplan (1988) underestimates the regional groundwater velocity for the second type of BTCs, and a larger longitudinal dispersivity can lead to a greater error, where the second type of BTCs has a rising limb at early stage followed by a falling limb at late stage. The general conclusion is that the estimations of groundwater velocity from SWPP tests are also affected by skin effects.
author list (cited authors)
Li, X. u., Wen, Z., Zhan, H., & Zhu, Q. i.