Race, Gender, and Disability and the Risk for Juvenile Justice Contact Academic Article uri icon


  • Exclusionary school discipline has received national attention due to its association with juvenile justice contact. Research has demonstrated support for links between exclusionary discipline and negative outcomes such as school dropout and juvenile justice involvement. The purpose of this study was to examine the intersections of race, gender, and disability in explaining the risk for juvenile justice contact using a state database, representing a sample of adolescent students. Controlling for individual, school, and community characteristics that are associated with juvenile justice contact such as, race/ethnicity, previous years discipline rate, student retention from previous year, primary disability, whether the campus is a Title I school, as well as student body size and diversity, results suggest that disproportionality is prevalent when examining juvenile justice contacts, but the relationship among race, gender, disability, and discipline is a complicated one. Implications for understanding juvenile justice contact outcomes and future research for advancing the field are discussed.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 7

author list (cited authors)

  • Mendoza, M., Blake, J. J., Marchbanks, M., & Ragan, K.

citation count

  • 13

complete list of authors

  • Mendoza, Martin||Blake, Jamilia J||Marchbanks, Miner PIII||Ragan, Kelsey

publication date

  • February 2020