An Extended Examination of the Crisis Situations: A Fusion of the Relational Management and Symbolic Approaches Academic Article uri icon


  • This article begins to integrate ideas from the relational management perspective of public relations with the symbolic approach to crisis communication. The fusion centers on the relation history as part of an organization's performance history. The belief is that relationship affects the crisis situation by shaping perceptions of the crisis and the organization in crisis. The experimental study found support connecting relationship history to the crisis situation. The results are termed the velcro effect because only a negative relationship history produced an effect on organizational reputation and crisis responsibility. The article offers a model of the crisis situation to explain how relationship history fits with the variables used in the symbolic approach. 2001, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Public Relations Research

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J.

citation count

  • 233

complete list of authors

  • Coombs, W Timothy||Holladay, Sherry J

publication date

  • January 2001